These synchronous, presettable counters feature an internal carry look-ahead for application in high-speed counting designs. The LS161A and LS163A are 4-bit binary counters. The carry output is decoded by means of a NOR gate, thus preventing spikes during the normal counting mode of operation. Synchronous operation is provided by having all flip-flops clocked simultaneously so that the outputs change co- incident with each other when so instructed by the count- enable inputs and internal gating. This mode of operation eliminates the output counting spikes which are normally associated with asynchronous (ripple clock) counters. A buffered clock input triggers the four flip-flops on the rising (positive-going) edge of the clock input waveform.
These counters are fully programmable; that is, the outputs may be preset to either level. As presetting is synchronous, setting up a low level at the load input disables the counter and causes the outputs to agree with the setup data after the next clock pulse, regardless of the levels of the enable input. The clear function for the LS161A is asynchronous; and a low level at the clear input sets all four of the flip-flop outputs low, regardless of the levels of clock, load, or enable inputs. The clear function for the LS163A is synchronous; and a low level at the clear inputs sets all four of the flip-flop outputs low after the next clock pulse, regardless of the levels of the enable inputs. This synchronous clear allows the count length to be modified easily, as decoding the maximum count desired can be accomplished with one external NAND gate. The gate output is connected to the clear input to synchronously clear the counter to all low outputs. The carry look-ahead circuitry provides for cascading counters for n-bit synchronous applications without additional gating. Instrumental in accomplishing this function are two count-enable inputs and a ripple carry output.
Both count-enable inputs (P and T) must be high to count, and input T is fed forward to enable the ripple carry output. The ripple carry output thus enabled will produce a high-level output pulse with a duration approximately equal to the high-level portion of the QA output. This high-level overflow ripple carry pulse can be used to enable successive cascaded stages. High-to-low level transitions at the enable P or T inputs may occur, regardless of the logic level of the clock. These counters feature a fully independent clock circuit. Changes made to control inputs (enable P or T or load) that will modify the operating mode have no effect until clocking occurs. The function of the counter (whether enabled, disabled, loading, or counting) will be dictated solely by the conditions meeting the stable set-up and hold times.